Fisheries and Oceans Canada / Pêches et Océans Canada - Government of Canada / Gouvernement du Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada / Pêches et Océans Canada - Government of Canada / Gouvernement du Canada
Français Contact Us Help Search Canada Site
Home What's New DFO National Site Map Media

Fisheries & Oceans
Maritimes Region
Fishing Industry
General Public
Marine & Oceans Industry
Students and Teachers
Scientists and Researchers


Scotian Shelf Shrimp (Pandalus borealis)
Integrated Fisheries Management Plan
Scotia-Fundy Fisheries
Maritimes Region

Pandalus borealis
The Northern Shrimp

Table of Contents


History and Participants
Location of the Fishery
Time frame (season)
Landings and Landed Value
Consultative Process
Management Style


Species Interactions
Science-related Activities 1997
Outlook for 1997



i) Issue: Improvement of Predictive Ability to Determining Fishable Biomass
ii) Issue: Intra- fleet Sharing of the Resource
iii) Issue: Sharing of the Resource (New Access)
iv) Issue: Permanent Transfers in the Scotia-Fundy Fleet
v) Issue: Development of an Inshore Trap Fishery
vi) Issue: Cost -sharing and Co-management of the Fishery
vii) Surveillance/ Monitoring/ Enforcement Issues and Strategies



Dockside Monitoring (DMP)



Figure 1: Commercially Fished Portions of Shrimp Fishing Areas 13 -15, located on the Eastern Scotian Shelf


Table 1: Scotian Shelf Shrimp Landings & Landed Value, 1990-1996

Table 2: Estimated Value of the 1997 Scientific Program


ANNEX 1: Regulated Shrimp Fishing Areas of the Atlantic Coast of Canada
ANNEX 2: ITQ Guidelines for the <65´ fleet (Scotia-Fundy sector)
ANNEX 3: ITQ Guidelines for the >65´ fleet (Gulf sector)
ANNEX 4: Membership of the Scotian Shelf Shrimp Advisory Committee
ANNEX 5: Resource Sharing Agreement (Scotia-Fundy and Gulf sectors)
ANNEX 6: Sanctions Guidelines for the Scotian Shelf Shrimp Fishery
ANNEX 7: Diagram: Acceptable Groundfish Separator Grate for the Scotian Shelf Shrimp Fishery


This document represents most of the 1997 aspects of a proposed multi-year fishing Plan developed during the January-March ´97 period by an ad hoc Working Group for The Scotian Shelf Shrimp Advisory Committee (SSSAC). That multi-year Plan was submitted to the Department of Fisheries & Oceans (Ottawa) in April ´97 for approval as a multi-year Co-management Plan. Feedback from that process indicated that the Department wished to see changes in the proposed formula for additional sharing of the resource, as well as a different structure for the Plan that would separate the Plan elements from contractual elements. In addition, a multi-year Plan would need to be ve tted through the Scotian Shelf Shrimp Advisory Committee. Completion of re-negotiation and re-writing processes for the multi-year approach could not be achieved in the time available for the 1997 fishery, therefore this document was produced by the Department to cover the 1997 fishing

1997 Scotian Shelf Shrimp (Pandalus borealis)
Integrated Fishery Management Plan - Scotia-Fundy Fisheries


History and Participants

The trawl fishery for northern shrimp on the eastern Scotian Shelf (NAFO Subdivision 4VW, Shrimp Fishing Areas 13-15) began in the mid 1970´s but the resource was underutilized until recently because of non-selectivity of the gear in terms of keeping the groundfish bycatch within allowed limits. In the early 1980´s, additional exploratory licences were created for Scotia-Fundy based groundfish trawlers in the >45´ to <65´ size class. These licences were offered first to eligible fishers in eastern Nova Scotia. Two eastern Nova Scotia fishers requested and received licences, and the remaining six were determined by public draw from eligible southwest Nova Scotian fishers.

At that time, the by-catch of groundfish was an ongoing problem, and prices were relatively low at 50 cents/lb. Despite the existence of 48 licences (25 based on the Scotian Shelf and 23 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence), only 4-6 were active prior to 1991 and catches averaged only 432 tonnes (1977-90) annually; almost all of which was caught by vessels >65´ LOA based in the Gulf of St. Lawrence area of New Brunswick.

In 1991, the introduction of the use of a groundfish separator grate in the trawls eliminated the bycatch problem, allowing the fishery to develop further. Additional licenses were subsequently introduced to the fishery on an exploratory basis between 1991-92; these were chosen entirely from Scotia-Fundy based, inshore mobile gear vessels to allow for greater participation of vessels adjacent to the resource. In addition, licence holders based in the Gulf agreed to limit their access to the resource to only 6 vessels and 25% of the TAC. In 1994, all active exploratory licences were converted to permanent licences.

Currently, there are 23 Scotia-Fundy based, <65´ vessels and six Gulf-based, 65-100´ vessels involved in the commercial fishery on the Scotian Shelf. In 1995, one of the 23 Scotia-Fundy based licences was purchased in the name of a First Nations band, under a joint-venture arrangement with a non-Native fisher who would train band members to Captain the vessel and operate the licence during a 3-year apprenticeship period.

In total, an estimated 116 people are directly employed in the harvesting aspects of this fishery on the vessels. In addition to this direct employment, jobs are created which monitor, unload, process and transport the landings, as well as transport, wholesale and retail the final market products. This fishery also generates employment associated with the provision and maintenance of the fishing vessels, fishing gear and other equipment, and the provision of fuel, food, insurance and other services.

Location of the Fishery

Fishing is concentrated in three main deep water areas or "holes" known as the Louisbourg, Misaine and Canso holes. These shrimp holes (see Figure 1 below) are located in the regulated Shrimp Fishing Areas 13, 14 and 15 (reference : Annex 1 to this Plan).

Fig. 1 Commercially fished portions of Shrimp Fishing Areas 13-15 , located on the eastern Scotian Shelf.

Commercially fished portions of Shrimp Fishing Areas 13-15

Time Frame (Season)

The fishery is permitted to operate on a year-round basis; however, owing to weather considerations and other considerations, fishing does not actually begin until mid-March, when the larger vessels in the fleet (Gulf-based) arrive on the grounds. The Scotia-Fundy fleet vessels begin to arrive approximately one month later.

Generally speaking, the Gulf-based fleet takes its fleet quota by the end of June. The Scotia-Fundy based fleet is usually near the end of its fleet quota by the end of October, but a few boats can usually be found fishing right into December; in any case, approximately 75% of this fleet´s allocation is harvested by the end of July.

Landings and Landed Value

Initially, TACs were set for the individual shrimp fishing areas. Although catches in 1991-93 increased to 2044 tons, this was still below the overall TAC because of difficulties in catching in particular areas. Subsequently, the use of individual TACs for the three areas was eliminated in favour of an overall TAC which, since 1994 was set at 3170 tonnes of which the commercial fleet shared 3100 tonnes and set aside 70 tonnes for scientific survey. The entire TAC has been caught every year since 1993. Landings and landed value from this fishery going back to 1990 are shown below in Table 1.

Table 1

Louisbourg, Misaine and Canso Holes

Year Quota Catch(t) Price/kg Value $000
1990 0 50 1.15 58
1991 2580 810 1.06 857
1992 2580 1850 1.15 2126
1993 2650 2044 1.32 2703
1994 3100 3073 1.32 4069
1995 3100 3171* 2.00 6342
1996 3170* 3173* 1.98 6271

Source for Quota & Catch: Canadian Atlantic Quota Report, 1990 -1996.
* includes Science quota of 70t
Note: Represents the total harvest, and landed value as a blended value, for both the Gulf-based and the Scotia-Fundy based mobile gear fleet

Almost all of the catch is landed in Nova Scotia on the eastern shore (e.g., Larry´s River, Canso) and in eastern Cape Breton (Arichat, Louisbourg), with the exception of the catch from the final trip made by the Gulf-based vessels which they land at Caraquet in New Brunswick. Buyers are found locally (Mulgrave, N.S.; Caraquet & Lamèque, N.B.) as well as in other Regions (Matane, P.Q.) and in the United States (Maine).

The shrimp sold in Canada are also processed in Canada (for example, at Mulgrave, Caraquet & Matane). The primary product form is peeled, frozen blocks of industrial-sized shrimp. Market end-points are Canadian as well as global.

Consultative Process

The main consultative body for this fishery is the Scotian Shelf Shrimp Advisory Committee (ref: membership list attached as Annex 4). This Committee (SSSAC) meets at least once per year, prior to the preparation of the fishing plan for the next season and invites all licence holders, including those with licences for fishing only in 4X, to attend. Sessions are also open to the public. It is chaired by DFO´s Scotia-Fundy sector Director of Resource Management. Formal scientific advice is presented to SSSAC and discussed on this occasion. Owing to the large membership on the SSSAC, which includes non-licence holders such as plant processors, provincial government representatives and others, it is occasionally necessary to handle specific issues via smaller Working Groups which then report back to the SSSAC. For example, the development of the renewed Resource Sharing Agreement for 1996-2000 for the Scotia-Fundy vs Gulf-based fleets was handled by an ad hoc Working Group struck specifically for that purpose in December 1995, and in December 1996, the SSSAC directed another ad hoc Working Group to develop a co-management approach for this fishery. As indicated in the Preface, a multi-year integrated fishery mangement plan (IFMP) is under development for presentation to the SSSAC this Fall.
Scientific analysis and advice is first presented in October during DFO-Science´s Research Advisory Process, which is open to the public and features reviewers invited from the SSSAC as well as expert reviewers from the scientific community. Upon revision, the formal Stock Assessment document is prepared for distribution and futher discussion at the SSSAC meeting which follows in early December.

In addition to the above consultative processes, the formation in 1996 of a single group, The Atlantic Canadian Mobile Shrimp Association (the Association) as previously described, to represent all 29 permanent licence holders has enhanced the consultation and management processes for this fishery. This Association was established and is maintained by the licence holders.

Management Style

This fishery is managed using one Total Allowable Catch for all three shrimp fishing areas (SFAs), where the amount to be fished is determined by using scientific and industry input. TACs were initially set at a percentage of an estimated fishable biomass which approximated exploitation rates of other shrimp stocks with established fisheries. TACs are adjusted periodically (i.e., several years) based on annual survey trends.

In 1993, when the Scotia-Fundy based licences had shown that they could be financially viable as stand-alone licences based on this fishery, they were converted by the Minister from exploratory to permanent status. In 1994, they moved from a competitive fishery to the use of Individual Quotas (IQ´s) of equal amounts per vessel and in 1996, they voted in favour of allowing these IQs to become transferable, within certain guidelines (ref: Annex 2). This Individual Transferable Quota (ITQ) fishery was approved by the Department of Fisheries & Oceans (DFO) for 1996 as a trial year. The 1996 trial was deemed successful by Regional DFO officials, as well as by the Scotia-Fundy fishers who are seeking to implement permanent transfers commencing in 1997 , as per the guidelines of 1996.

Also in 1996, the Gulf vessels moved from a competitive fishery to the use of IQ´s, which were based on an agreed-upon catch history decided by the fleet, capped by the Gulf fleet´s share of the Scotian Shelf TAC. The Gulf IQs; therefore, although similar in quantity to one another, were not identical to each other (ref: Annex 3).

For 1997, the Scotia-Fundy fleet will remain with the transferability of quota and the Gulf-based vessels will move to ITQ from IQ. The Department will permit the Scotia-Fundy transfers to be done on a permanent basis effective this year.

In addition to the use of limited entry, TAC, IQ and ITQ controls on effort, fishers must continue to use a trawl equipped with an effective groundfish separator grate and a mesh size no smaller than 40mm in the codend of their trawls to protect incoming year classes of juvenile shrimp (ref: Section 73 of the 1985 Atlantic Fishery Regulations and Annex 7).



The northern or pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis, is the only shrimp species of commercial importance in the Maritimes Region. Shrimp are crustaceans, and have a hard outer shell which they must periodically shed (moult) in order to grow. The females produce eggs once a year in the Fall and carry them, attached to their abdomen, through the winter until the spring, when they hatch. The newly hatched shrimp spend 3 to 4 months as pelagic larvae, feeding near the surface. At the end of this period they move to the bottom and take up the life style of the adults. The northern shrimp first matures as a male, at two to three years of age, but approximately at age four it changes sex, to spend another one to two years as a female.


Shrimp concentrate in the cooler waters of the deep "shrimp holes" on the eastern Scotian Shelf, but nearshore concentrations along coastlines closest to the offshore populations (i.e., from Canso to Louisbourg, N.S.) have recently been discovered. They prefer temperatures of 2 to 6°C, and a soft, muddy bottom with a high organic content. In the Gulf of Maine, sea surface temperatures have been correlated with changes in the shrimp population, with higher surface water temperatures leading to decreased shrimp abundance. Conversely, it is possible that the lower water temperatures on the eastern Scotian shelf in recent years may have contributed toward observed increases in the shrimp population in this area.

Species Interactions

Groundfish, especially cod, hake, redfish and flounder, are known to be major predators of northern shrimp. Decreases in all these fish species during the 1990´s also may have contributed significantly toward observed increases in many shrimp populations in the Northwest Atlantic, including the Scotian Shelf.


Annual scientific stock assessments for the determination of stock dynamics such as levels of recruitment to the fishery and biomass trends, are based on commercial CPUE (catch per unit effort) indices derived using fishing log data from the commercial fishery. Logs are also available from the inshore shrimp trap fishery. The data from the traps are used to augment the database from the commercial mobile gear fishery.

In addition to biomass estimates, assessments are made of the population structure, and indications of needs for future study are noted.

Population abundance, as determined from surveys and catch per unit effort data series, has been increasing in recent years despite increased fishing pressure. In addition, recruitment appears to be unaffected.

The status of this stock is outlined annually in the "Maritimes Region Stock Status Report for Northern Shrimp on the Eastern Scotian Shelf" and the more detailed "DFO Atlantic Fisheries Research Document" series.


Financial support for research on this stock in the past has been sporadic. Research studies that involve more than basic monitoring have been possible since 1994 when it was agreed by industry that an amount of quota (70 tonnes) would be reserved to provide funds for conducting trawl surveys by the industry, with DFO-Science continuing to suppy the research expertise. Prior to that, the 1982-1988 Spring and Fall shrimp surveys on RV E.E. Prince provided some basic biological and environmental information on this stock. Some analysis of this earlier data have been published, but that database continues to be analysed. Additional information on shrimp distribution and predator abundance is available from groundfish surveys.

The shrimp industry trawl surveys in 1995 and 1996 were expanded to include inshore areas. In addition, monitoring and sampling the catches from the exploratory inshore trap fishery helps to increase our knowledge of distribution, abundance and migration patterns of shrimp in the adjacent inshore area.

In addition to the need for basic biological information (distribution, migration, life history, growth and reproduction) research is required on the population´s responses to fishing pressure; in particular, the relationships between spawning stock biomass, recruitment, and the fishery whether in a population growth period for the shrimp or in a period of possible downturn. The suggested approach is to use the annual research on the nature of the stock-recruitment relationship which monitor changes in biomass and recruitment in conjunction with population modelling to answer these questions.

Uncertainties associated with environmental influences add an additional risk factor.
For the above reasons, annual surveys will be required for the forseeable future in order to provide estimates of the size of recruiting year classes, and to study the questions surrounding spawning stock biomass environmental influences on this resource.

Science-related Activities 1997

In 1997 Departmental Science staff will, as in the past:

1. design and oversee the annual survey of up to 65 stations in SFA 13-15 and the comparative fishing with vessel(s) used in previous surveys to permit inter annual comparisons of the data;
2. monitor and sample the commercial catch from a scientific perspective throughout the fishing season;
3. conduct the data analysis and reporting (Stock Status Report and Research Document);
4. oversee consultants hired to analyze samples and data;
5. consult with other DFO staff and the Association as required, e.g.,the Fall´97 SSSAC meeting, other ad hoc meetings, and distribute scientific information as required;
6. conduct research on shrimp biology and assessment methodology to improve advice to fisheries management personnel over the long term, particularly for stock projections; and
7. train Association members where appropriate to improve industry input into the scientific assessment process (e.g., proper completion of the fishing/DMP logbook).

In 1997, the Atlantic Canadian Mobile Shrimp Association will:
1. donate the required amount of quota from members´ allocation to cover the catch expected from the scientific survey
2. charter a properly equipped vessel, approved by the Department, to conduct the survey annually over the period of this Plan;
3. purchase a survey trawl,doors, and replacement materials as necessary, to be used exclusively for the annual survey;
4. charter the Cody & Kathryn (in 1997) including trawl & doors used in the 1995 survey, for comparative fishing with the 1997 survey vessel;
5. re-imburse the 1996 vessel (Lady Megan II) for actual outstanding costs of 1996 comparative fishing experiment;
6. hire a consultant acceptable to the Department to analyze survey and commercial samples;
7. encourage fishers to make accurate entries in logbooks, including daily and, if possible, set by set accounting of catch weight, fishing effort, fishing time, position of tows, number of shrimp per pound, and provide their views and observations concerning the health of the stock and the fishery in the form of an annual questionnaire;
8. participate in the Fall 1997 peer review of the stock assessment, the preparation of Research Documents and Stock Status Reports; and
9. organize information sessions for presentation of project information as necessary.

Table 2. Estimated value of the 1997 Scientific program

The Department Industry
Item Value Value
Scientific expertise
Travel (survey/sampling) Equipment: (computing)



Charter survey vessel:
Comparative fishing experiment 1997:
Comparative fishing experiment 1996:

Purchase trawl and doors

Catch sample analysis (150 @ $100 per)

Miscellaneous supplies

Manage survey charter, participate in scientific consultations, prepare paperwork, as necessary:












Total estimated value of 1997 scientific program



Outlook for 1997

Stock assessment indicators such as biomass and recruitment levels indicate that the stock can tolerate some additional fishing effort. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) data from the fishery and CPUE and population structure data from the scientific survey series (ref: DFO Atlantic Fisheries Stock Status Report # 96/78E) indicate that the biomass is high and that recruitment of juveniles into the fishery is steady. Relative to other shrimp fisheries, the total exploitation rate of this fishery is low, i.e., the harvest represents only about 10% of the estimated fishable biomass. In addition, the stock is currently favoured by a combination of low predator abundance (primarily groundfish stocks) and a favourable environmental condition (colder than average temperatures on the Shelf).
On the other hand, the period over which this stock has been surveyed using comparable survey methods is short; year class strength and recruitment levels can only be compared with certainty for the years 1995 and 1996. Also, there was a change in the fishing pattern by the fleet in 1996: effort that year was more widely distributed than in previous years. Vessels moved from a favourite fishing location known as the "Big Hole" to the surrounding areas. The Captains found that the shrimp were in higher concentrations outside the Big Hole, which is not usually the case. This move may have resulted in an overestimate of the 1996 CPUE index relative to the 1995 fishery. Major uncertainties also exist with regard to the relationship between the level of critical spawning biomass and sustainable levels of recruitment into the fishery; for example, a decrease of spawning stock below some presently unknown level could result in a large, swift decline in the fishable biomass. In 1991, the Canadian Atlantic Fishery Advisory Committee advised that optimum rate of exploitation was probably unique for each stock and should be determined for individual stocks through experimental fishing. Thus, with existing fishing effort on this stock at an all time high, any increase in the harvest levels of Scotian Shelf shrimp must be done in a controlled and well-monitored manner. In addition, environmental factors which appear to be favouring the abundance of shrimp may be relatively short lived.

A TAC increase of approximately 15% for 1997 has been requested by industry. This would take the commercial allocation from 3100 to 3600 tonnes. Given the foregoing discussion, this level of increase is considered by DFO-Science to be tolerable by the resource, certainly on a one year basis. A higher level of increase is not supported by DFO-Science at this time. This will be reviewed again at the Fall 1997 RAP.


The main objectives for this fishery for 1997 are:

1. continuation of fishing at a sustainable level.;
2. continue to base mangement decisions upon the best scientific advice available with regard to the setting of Total Allowable Catch (TAC);
3. continuation of sharing of access to the resource to the exsiting fleet in terms of the proportions allocated to the < 65´ and the 65-100´ vessels from the Scotia-Fundy and Gulf sectors of the Maritimes Region;
4. offset the expected loss of gross revenue for existing licence holders due to 1997 downturn in price by allocating the additional quota available from the new TAC to the existing fleet;
5. continuation of the inclusion of Native groups in this fishery to the extent possible, as opportunities arise and as interest from and capability of the Native community develops;
6. continuation of the use of environmentally responsible fishing practices; e.g., the use and proper installation of the Nordmore grate to minimize the incidental capture of groundfish, and development of other measures as the need arises to minimize impacts on the environment and/or on other, established fisheries;
7. continuation of monitoring and scientific assessment of the stock such that a high quality, comparative historical database continues to be developed with the support of the industry, thereby increasing the accuracy of stock predictions over time;
8. retain and further develop the existing elements of a co-management approach to the operation of this fishery, such as in the scientific research, at-sea monitoring, and consultation spheres;
9. continued surveillance monitoring of the fishery to ensure management plan elements, regulatory requirements and licence conditions are respected and consistently enforced.


i) Issue: Improvement of Predictive Ability to Determining Fishable Biomass

Comparative fishing in 1996, using the 1995 and 1996 vessel/gear combinations, showed that despite broad similarities in construction and design, the gear efficiencies and selectivities were very different when the results from one vessel were compared with that of another. This resulted in data interpretation problems and indicates that the survey must be completed with the same trawl, and preferably by the same vessel, every year.

Approach for 1997

In 1997, the Association will purchase a trawl to be used exclusively for the scientific survey each year. A vessel will be chartered by the Association to conduct the survey, possibly for a multi-year period, and comparison tows will be conducted as necessary to standardize the data.

ii) Issue: Intra- fleet Sharing of the Resource

This stock is fished by vessels from the former Gulf Region of DFO as well as by vessels from the former Scotia-Fundy Region (now amalgamated into a single Maritimes Region). Prior to amalgamation, fishers had agreed to share the TAC on the basis of a split of 25% for the Gulf-based vessels and 75% for the Scotia-Fundy based vessels. The ongoing sharing of the resource by the two fleets was reviewed and a new multi-year sharing Agreement was accepted in1996, which expires December 31, 2000 (ref: Annex 5).


In 1996, these two fleets formed a single association (The Canadian Atlantic Mobile Shrimp Association) which confirmed their ongoing support for the continuation of the above-mentioned Resource Sharing Agreement. The Department supports this approach.

iii) Issue: Sharing of the Resource (New Access)

This fishery recently experienced its most profitable years (1995,1996) owing to the combined circumstances of high market price, increased stock abundance and improved gear selectivity. As a result, the Department has received several requests for new licences for this fishery. However, the existing licence holders require a certain degree of stability in order to plan their fishing activities in a businesslike manner, and to offset increasing costs of participation in this fishery.


In 1997, it has been determined that there has not been enough stability in the fishery to warrant any new access.

iv) Issue: Permanent Transfers in the Scotia-Fundy Fleet

The introduction of transferable quotas at the request of the Scotia-Fundy fleet last year was initially voted on by the licence holders as being for either permanent or temporary transfers (with all other Guidelines being met). Because the Region recommended it be approved for a trial year first, no permanent transfers were permitted in 1996. In 1997, because no problems were identified with the trial year for quota transfers, this fleet wishes to proceed with permanent transfers, irrespective of whether a multi-year fishing plan is adopted this Fall.


Permit the Scotia-Fundy based fleet to move ahead with permanent transfers in 1997.

v) Issue: Development of an Inshore Trap Fishery

The developmental trap fishery, which presently shows some potential for sustainability in the near-shore areas adjacent to the shrimp holes further offshore which are fished by the mobile gear fleet, is a concern to the mobile gear fleet in the event that this new fishery could adversely affect their TAC and their Scotia-Fundy/Gulf Sharing Agreement.


To date, no TAC has been set for the inshore developmental trap fishery. Effort is currently limited to 16 fishers with 100 traps per licence,not all of which appear to be economically viable. All trap licences adjacent to the commercial shrimp holes are restricted to fishing shoreward of a line which keeps them well inshore of the commercial areas fished by mobile gear. There are no similar restrictions on the commercial fleet, other than the need to avoid towing near fixed gear. However, DFO has advised all exploratory trap fishers that established fisheries take overall precedence. Licences in the trap fishery are not available to anyone who also holds a mobile gear licence. The commercial fishery farther offshore and this developmental fishery are being managed separately until the stock relationship of the two fisheries can be clarified. TACs initially set for the commercial fishery for the shrimp holes offshore did not include inshore shrimp in biomass calculations; therefore, the removal of inshore shrimp has not affected the mobile gear TAC.

Before any change is made by the Department regarding the setting of the TAC, trap and trawl fishers will have the opportunity to review the scientific findings and make fisheries management recommendations to DFO via the Scotian Shelf Shrimp Advisory Committee.

vi) Issue: Cost -sharing and Co-management of the Fishery

As indicated in the Preface to this Plan, co-management of this fishery may require that a government-industry contract ( known as a Joint Project Agreement or "JPA") be drafted.


The specific responsibilities and associated costs related to a JPA will be discussed further at the Fall ´97 SSSAC and with the Association.

vii) Surveillance/ Monitoring/ Enforcement Issues and Strategies

Issue: Adherence to and enforcement of elements of this Plan and of the licence conditions for the fishery are a concern and responsibility of both the Department of Fisheries & Oceans and the licence holders.


The Department and the Association will work co-operatively on monitoring of the fishery via fishing log (DMP) records, and quota & at-sea monitoring, and other measures as required.


1. TAC increase of approximately 15% to 3600 tonnes for 1997.
2. The 500t TAC increase will be allocated to the existing fleet for 1997 only. At the time of scientific advice for 1998, a five year agreement will be put in place with the proviso that if the increase in quota is sustained at least four new vessels will be given long-term, temporary licences based on a defined formula.
3. Science survey and analyses to be undertaken as described.
4. Scotia-Fundy/Gulf sector Sharing Agreement re: 75:25 split of TAC re-confirmed .
5. Scotia-Fundy sector fleet (<65´ LOA) to continue with quota transferability, allowing for permanent transfers as of 1997, up to maximum accumulation of 8.7% of the inshore fleet´s TAC, or 202.2 tonnes (whichever is the greater), relative to initial IQs in the 1996 trial, and providing there is sufficient quota available to the Scotia-Fundy sector fleet (ref: Annex 2 guidelines).
6. Gulf sector fleet (65 - 100´ LOA) moves to IQ, with transfers temporary only, on an annual basis; no ceiling of accumulation.
7. Nominal quota over-runs to be addressed by the following process:
a) If over-run is less than 2 tonnes, deduction the following year will be 1:1
b) If over-run is 2t -5t, deduction the following year will be 2:1
c) If over-run is >5t, deduction the following year will be 3:1.
This approach recognizes that the Minister retains full discretion with regard to enforcement of all licence conditions.
8. At-sea Observer monitoring to maximum of 5% of average # sea-days to be funded by the licence holders.
9. Quota for the scientific survey and additional quota as necessary to cover The Association´s costs for the scientific and at-sea monitoring program to be contributed by the licence holders to a Special Allocation at the request of the Association ( 517 Kg. per fisher X 29 fishers=15t).
10. All landings by the regular fleet will continue to be monitored at dockside by industry funded DMP program, audited by DFO.
11. DFO statistical staff will continue to statistically monitor and report on landings, to review requests for quota transfers to ensure they fall within the established guidelines, and to issue approvals in writing for quota transfers. No fishing of transferred quota to take place until DFO has issued the written approval.
12. The 4X shrimp stock (SFA 16) continues to be a non-TAC, competitive fishery, subject to annual review at the SSSAC.
13. The developmental shrimp trap fishery continues to be exploratory in nature and to operate without a TAC, under a trap limit of 100 traps per fisher and subject to the Region´s DMP policy for developmental non-quota fisheries.




The primary enforcement focus for this fishery is the Total Allowable Catch.

Landings, IQ´s and Gear

Secondarily, enforcement focuses on:

· individual landings in relation to individual quotas and the confirmation of logbook information;
· use and effectiveness of the groundfish separator grate (Ref: Annex 7): are juvenile groundfish entering through the grate into the cod-end, and being discarded at sea? Are non-standard materials, designs or practises in use which may cause the grate to loose its effectiveness?
· use and effectiveness of mesh size (40 mm) of nets to protect groundfish stocks and juvenile shrimp. Note: As a voluntary measure, some fishers use square mesh cod ends to afford additional protection to juvenile shrimp and to juvenile groundfish which may pass through the grate.


Season is not a factor in this fishery as it is open year-round.


Because the fishing grounds are well-within the commercial fishing zones, and the TAC is a global TAC for all three SFAs, infractions of boundary conditions are not a problem with this fleet. Offshore boundary restrictions on the developmental trap fishery are also a consideration.

Carapace Size

This fishery has no carapace size limits.


There are no restrictions on males or females in the catch.


At-sea boardings and certified observers

Random, at-sea boardings of vessels involved in this fishery would be the most effective means of discovery of infractions against licence conditions, as well as being an incentive for compliance; however, there is no longer a DFO vessel available for at-sea patrols of this fishery .

Use of a low percentage of coverage of certified at-sea observers on the regular fleet, for example, approximately 5% of total sea days, would provide information on the types of grates in use, whether they were installed correctly, and their effectiveness while in use. A much higher level of coverage by at-sea observers would be required to ensure compliance of a majority of vessels in the fleet; however, at present, due to the fairly recent successful commercial history of this fleet and the coincidental decrease in Departmental resources, this fleet has had a minimal level of at-sea observer coverage funded by DFO and no history of infractions to justify a high level of Observer coverage in 1997. The suitability of the 5% level is to be reviewed for 1998.

Estimated cost to industry:

Estimated total days at sea: 941
At 5% coverage, observer at sea days: 47 sea days to be monitored

Cost to The Association for Observer @$225.00/day)...........$10,575

In addition, there will be costs for meals at sea, which will be borne by the individual licence holder and costs for data interpretation which will be borne by DFO. It is noted that The Association is to be apprised of the results of such industry-funded monitoring, via The Department in a timely manner that would not jeopardize Departmental enforcement action.

Dockside Monitoring

All landings are required to be hailed in from sea at least three hours prior to landing, and providing specific information in the hail including the port of landing and the estimated catch. This gives both the Dockside Monitoring (DMP) Company and the Department advance notice such that personnel can meet the vessel as it arrives in port. In the case of the Dockside Monitoring Company, all landings of each vessel are met. In the case of the Department, vessels are met on a random basis, as an audit function to determine the compliance with and successfulness of the Dockside Monitoring Program.

Quota Monitoring and Licensing

All data retrieved and verified by the DMP Company is entered into the Departmental statistical database for tracking and reporting with corresponding vessel names and fishing licence numbers. Reports are provided to DFO Resource Management, Science and Enforcement staff, on a regular or "as needed" basis.

Licensing staff of DFO will prepare and issue licences required for the fishery in accordance with Fisheries Act & Regulations, Licensing Policy and this Plan. They will collect licensing fees as per Regulations and amend licences as necessary to accommodate licence and vessel transfers, permanent quota transfers, and quota reductions if necessary (such as, for the Special Allocation for the Association.)

Enforcement Action

As mentioned above, very little enforcement action has had to be taken to date with regard to this fleet. In the event that enforcement action is required, this would be co-ordinated through the Regional office in Halifax for this sector and may also involve the Area office in Sydney.


Annex 6 lists the infractions which might result in the course of this fishery and the penalties that may be administered by what is known as "the Sanctions process". These Sanction guidelines were reviewed in 1996 and accepted by this fleet. Presently,however, the Sanctions process is on hold pending resolution of matters before the courts.

Dockside Monitoring (DMP)

Requirement of each licence holder to fund and participate in the Dockside Monitoring Program using Dockside observers approved by DFO. This Program includes requirements to hail in prior to landing and to report all landings in writing to DFO via their DMP company for each fishing trip immediately upon completion of that trip. Contractual costs to be borne 100% by the Industry.

Estimated costs:

To fleet........(approximately $75.00/day x 941 sea days)=
3.5 days/trip
($75.00 x 269 landings) = $20,175 regular fleet*
(*note: fleet´s own estimate of its total DMP costs: $32,000)

In addition, DFO will experience costs associated with audit monitoring and evaluation of the DMP program by use of Fishery Officers, and Statistical and Resource Management personnel.


The shrimp licences in SFAs 13-15 are issued pursuant to the absolute discretion of the Minister of Fisheries & Oceans as per Section (7) of the Fisheries Act. The policies governing the issuance of these licences, including licence re-issuance, licence splits, vessel replacement, fisher and vessel registrations, general policy guidelines, etc., are all included in the 1996 Commercial Fisheries Licensing Policy for Eastern Canada. A copy of this Policy can be obtained from any DFO Licencing Center.


Scotian Shelf Shrimp Fishing Zones
Scotian Shelf Shrimp Fishing Zones



Operational Guidelines
Scotia-Fundy Scotian Shelf Shrimp Fleet (<65´ Vessels)
For SFAs 13, 14 and 15

1. Transfers will be permitted only among the Scotia-Fundy based licence holders who own a <65´ LOA mobile gear vessel in the Scotian Shelf shrimp fishery for shrimp fishing areas (SFAs) 13, 14 and 15.

2. Transfers of unused quota between the inshore (Scotia-Fundy based) and mid-shore (Gulf based) fleets are not covered by these guidelines. Such inter-sector transfers will be arranged in the manner laid out in the Management Plan for the Scotian Shelf shrimp fishery for SFAs 13, 14 and 15.

3. Transfers of quota among participants in the ITQ Program will be permitted on a permanent or temporary basis. If temporary, all ITQ amounts revert back to the original licence holders at the beginning of the next fishing year. If a licence buy-back program occurs during the fishing year, potential applicants for the buy-back would be ineligible for permanent quota transfer once the buy-back program is in place.

4. No licence holder may acquire more than 8.7% of the total Scotia-Fundy (<65´) fleet´s share of the TAC, under this ITQ Program. This 8.7% shall include any combination of temporary and permanent transfers, in addition to the portion of the licence holder´s original ITQ for the year that remains with that licence holder.

5. No transfers will be permitted to or from any licence holder alleged to have been a party to a fisheries violation, until all proceedings are completed. Also, no transfers will be permitted to or from any licence holder under fisheries sanction or pending sanction until the sanction has been removed by the Department.

6. Quota transfer can only be approved upon submission of an application form by the licence holder, and review and approval of the application by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. A written response to each applicant will be sent out by the Department.

* ITQ: Individual Transferable Quota



Proposed Guidelines

The following list identifies those fishers who are Gulf-based and presently have access to the
Scotian Shelf shrimp fishery, along with their Individual Quotas.

These quotas are transferable on a temporary basis, with no limits, on an annual basis, provided any change from this list and these percentages is requested in writing to the Department of Fisheries & Oceans in Halifax, NS. Fishing of any transferred quota shall await approval in writing from the Department of Fisheries & Oceans.

# Vessel Licence Holder % of Midshore
Fleet´s Allocation

1 Luc Yves Marcel Chiasson 15.7 %
2 Mario G. Daniel Gionet 16.25%
3 Lady Gloria Gilles Gionet 18.30%
4 Jean Collette Pamphile Legere 18.55%
5 Noemie Karen Bertrand Mallet 15.7 %
6 Lady Lison Ronald Michon 15.5 %

* ITQ: Individual Transferable Quota


Scotian Shelf Shrimp Advisory Committee

(December, 1996)


F. Greg Peacock


D. M. MacDonald Licence Holder, Armdale, N.S.
F. D. Hawkins, Licence Holder, Beaver Harbour, N.S.
D. J. Potter, Licence Holder, Digby, N.S.
S. Corkum, Licence Holder (Yar. Sea Product Ltd.), Yarmouth Co., N.S.
W. Shrader, Licence Holder (W. M. Shrader Fish Ltd.), Larry´s River, N.S.
R. J. King, Licence Holder (R.J. King Fisheries Ltd.), Sydney, N.S.
O. d´Entremont, Licence Holder (Two Bros. Fish Ltd.) Pubnico, N.S.
J. Nickerson Licence Holder (Patches Fisheries Ltd.), Clark´s Hbr, N.S.
Jacob Buffet, Licence Holder, Bras D´Or, N.S
Dick Fevens, Licence Holder, Glenwood, Yar. Co.
B. Christmas, Licence Holder (Membertou First Nations), Sydney, N.S.
D. Gionet, Licence Holder Caraquet, N.B.


R. J. King President, The Atlantic Canadian Mobile Shrimp Association, Halifax, N.S.
R. Haché, Fédération Régional Acadienne des Pêcheurs Professionnelles inc. (FRAPP) Shippagan, N.B
R. Stirling ,Seafood Producers Assoc. of N.S. (SPANS), Dartmouth, N.S
B. Giroux, SF Mobile Gear Fish Assoc. (SFMGFA), Yarmouth, N.S
P. Dysart, New Brunswick Fish Packer Association (NBFPA), Moncton, N.B.


E. Roe, Clearwater Fine Foods, Bedford, N.S.
F. Greene, Fisherman´s Market, Halifax, N.S.
D. Bolivar, SeaFreez Foods, Dartmouth, N.S.
V. Chiasson, Produits Belle Baie Ltee., Caraquet, N.B.
B. d´Entremont, Acadian Fish, Yarmouth, N.S.
Jogvan Kjolbro,ACS Trading Inc., Mulgrave, N.S.

Provincial Government

G. Roach, N. S. Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Halifax, N.S.
L. Haché, N. B. Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Fredericton, N.B.

Federal Government

J. Wheelhouse, Area Office, Sydney, N.S.
T. Surette, Area Office Yarmouth, N.S.
C. Rose, Area Office, St. Andrews, N.B.
V. Bradshaw, Resource Management, Halifax, N.S.
P. Koeller, Science Halifax, N.S.
K. Veinot ,Conservation & Protection Halifax, N.S.
J. Barrow ,Resource Allocation, Ottawa, ON
M. Maillet ,Resource Allocation Moncton, N.B.

First Nations/ Aboriginal Organizations

Cory Francis, Native Council of Nova Scotia, Truro, N. S.
C. Millie, The Mi´Kmaq Fish & Wildlife Association ,Afton, N.S.
J. Prosper The Mi´Kmaq Fish & Wildlife Association Afton, N.S.
Other (Observer Status)

J. R. Angel, Canadian Association of Prawn Producers, Bedford, N.S.
M. Newell ,Licence Holder, Exploratory Shrimp Trap Fishery, Canso, N.S.



Resource Sharing Agreement

The following Agreement is recommended by the Industry/Government Working Group on Resource Sharing* to the Scotian Shelf Shrimp Advisory Committee as the replacement Agreement for that which expired December 31, 1995.

Provided the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) for the commercial shrimp fleet is assigned to the existing <65´ mobile (Scotia-Fundy) and 65-100´ mobile (Gulf) fleets:

1. The Total Allowable Catch (TAC) in Shrimp Fishing Areas (SFAs) 13, 14 and 15 will be allocated in the following proportions or "fleet quotas": 75% for vessels <65´ LOA and 25% for vessels between 65-100´ LOA.

2. During each fishing year, uncaught fleet quota may be transferred temporarily between these two fleets after a review on or about October 15th of that fishing year.

3. Only six vessels from the Gulf fleet will fish shrimp in SFAs 13, 14 and 15 during the period of this Agreement. These vessels shall be from the 65-100´ mobile gear sector, and be licensed to fish shrimp. In addition, they will be those vessels listed in Annex 1 to this Agreement which was tabled by the Gulf fleet representatives on the Working Group.

4. Temporary substitution of fishing vessels from either fleet will be permitted, provided it is done in accordance with the licensing policy of the Department of Fisheries & Oceans. The shrimp catch from such temporarily substituted vessels will be applied against the quota of the regular shrimp licence holder licensed for this fishery.

5. This Agreement will be in effect for a period of five (5) years from the time of its adoption by the Scotian Shelf Shrimp Advisory Committee, expiring on December 31st of the 5th year. For example, if adopted in 1996, this Agreement would expire December 31, 2000.


(Recommendations of Fisheries and Oceans Enforcement Staff
to the Regional Director-General)

Violation ITQ/IQ Competitive
No valid condition/not renewing licence - Sec. 22(7) FGR (see note for this offence under groundfish or lobster) quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: minimum 6 months
Unauthorized area/closed time quota: minimum 5 tonnes time: minimum 6 tonnes
No dockside observer quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: minimum 6 month
Offloading without authorization or contrary to authorization (specified time/place) quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: minimum 6 months
Purchasing, selling, possessing fish caught in contravention of Fisheries Act Section 33 quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: minimum 6 months
Making false statements/records - Sec. 63 FA quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: minimum 6 months
Transhipping without a licence quota: minimum 5 tonnes time: minimum 1 year
Violating bycatch provisions quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: minimum 6 months

Two violations in a one-year period, or any three violations in a five-year period may result in a doubling of the normal sanction recommendation for the latest violation(s) committed. "Violations" in this context include all offences listed under shrimp.

*These guidelines do not preclude assessment of sanctions beyond the ranges shown above if the seriousness and/or repetition of violations warrant it. For licences which come into effect for January 1, but for which the season does not open until later in the year, the period from January 1 to the opening of the fishery may be added to the recommended sanction.

**In IQ fisheries, any illegal catches will be recovered by a quota deduction (in addition to the normal deduction prescribed by the guidelines). This will apply only in cases where the amount of illegal catch has been determined and when it has not been seized by Fisheries and Oceans as part of the investigation.

APPENDIX 6 cont´d

(Recommendations of Fisheries and Oceans Enforcement Staff
to the Regional Director-General)

Violation ITQ/IQ Competitive
Not releasing incidental catch quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: minimum 6 months
Exceeding permissible quantity of shrimp in a stock area quota: minimum 3 tonnes

quota: minimum 5 tonnes

quota: minimum 10 tonnes

Separator Grate Related Offences quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: five day penalty for each day grate not used
No dockside observer quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: minimum 6 months
Failure to provide true return quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: minimum 6 months
Failure to hail or inaccurate hail quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: minimum 6 months
Unreported over-packing quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: minimum 6 months
Obstruction of a Fishery Officer carrying out duties and functions under the Fisheries Act (Sec. 62 FA) quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: minimum 6 months
Use of a vessel/permit not authorized by licence quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: minimum 6 months
Small mesh/obstructing mesh quota: minimum 5 tonnes time: minimum 6 months
Dumping quota: minimum 3 tonnes time: minimum 6 months

Acceptable Groundfish Separator Grate for the Scotian Shelf Shrimp Fishery

Acceptable Groundfish Separator Grate for the Scotian Shelf Shrimp Fishery

Last Modified : 2003-01-31